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Research Guides United Nations Office at Geneva Library & Archives

International Commissions of Inquiry, Fact-finding Missions: Africa

Burundi

2016-2019

Mandating authority

Human  Rights Council resolution 33/24 of 30 Sep. 2016, renewed by resolutions 36/19 of 29 Sep. 2017, 39/14 of 28 Sep. 2018, 42/26 of 27 Sep. 2019, 45/19 of 6 Oct. 2020

Commission/Mission Commission of Inquiry on human rights in Burundi (OHCHR website)
Mandate

Human Rights Council decided to extend the mandate of the Commission of Inquiry on Burundi for a further period of one year in order for it to continue its investigations, including with regard to the economic underpinnings of the State;
(a) To conduct a thorough investigation into human rights violations and abuses in  Burundi  since  April  2015,  including on their  extent  and  whether  they  may  constitute international crimes, with a view to contributing to the fight against impunity;
(b) To  identify  alleged  perpetrators  of  human  rights  violations  and  abuses  in Burundi with a view to ensuring full accountability;
(c) To formulate recommendations on steps to be taken with a view to guaranteeing that the  authors of these violations and abuses, regardless of their affiliation, are held accountable for their acts;
(d) To engage with the Burundian authorities and all other stakeholders, in particular United Nations agencies, civil society, refugees, the field presence of the Office of the High Commissioner in Burundi, authorities of the African Union, and the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, in order to provide the support and expertise or the immediate improvement of the situation of human rights and the fight  against impunity;
(e) To present an oral briefing to the Human Rights Council at its thirty-fourth and thirty-fifth  sessions, and a final report during an interactive dialogue at its thirty-sixth session;
(f) To present its report to the General Assembly and other relevant international bodies

Members of the Mission

Mr. Doudou Diène (Senegal), President, Ms. Lucy Asuagbor (Camerron), Ms. Francoise Hampson (UK)

Former commissioners:
Mr. Fatsah Ouguergouz, President (Algeria)
Ms. Reine Alapini Gansu (Benin)

Reports  and related documents

Reports:
A/HRC/45/32 (13 Aug. 2020)
A/HRC/42/49 (6 Aug. 2019)
A/HRC/39/63 (8 Aug 2018)
Detailed final report A/HRC/39/CRP.1 (Français) (12 Sep 2018)
Outline of the detailed final report (Français)
A/HRC/36/54 of 11 Aug. 2017 and Corr.1 (4 Oct. 2017)
Extracts of the report of the Commission in Kirundi (unofficial translation)
A/HRC/36/CRP.1/Rev.1 (Français)

Statements:

Oral presentation by Mr. Fatsah Ouguergouz to the Human Rights Council, 15 June 2017 ( English / French)
Oral presentation by Mr. Fatsah Ouguergouz to the Human Rights Council, 13 March 2017 (English / French )

 

2015

Mandating authority

Human  Rights Council resolution S-24/1 of 17 Dec. 2015

Commission/Mission United Nations Independent Investigation on Burundi (OHCHR website)
Mandate

Human Rights Council requested the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to urgently organize and dispatch on the most expeditious basis possible a mission by independent existing experts:
To undertake swiftly an investigation into violations and abuses of human rights with a view to preventing further deterioration of the human rights situation; To make recommendations on the improvement of the human rights situation and on technical assistance to support reconciliation and the implementation of the Arusha Agreement; To engage with the Burundian authorities and all other relevant stakeholders, including United Nations agencies, civil society, refugees, the field presence of the Office of the High Commissioner in Burundi, authorities of the African Union, and the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, in particular with a view to help the State to fulfil its human rights obligations, to ensure accountability for human rights violations and abuses, including by identifying alleged perpetrators, to adopt appropriate transitional justice measures and to maintain the spirit of the Arusha Agreement; To ensure the complementarity and coordination of this effort with other efforts of the United Nations, the African Union and other appropriate regional and international entities, drawing on the expertise of the African Union and the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights to the extent practicable; To have a representative of the experts issue an oral update and participate in an enhanced interactive dialogue on the human rights situation in Burundi at the thirty-first session of the Human Rights Council, and to issue a final report and participate in an enhanced interactive dialogue on the human rights situation in Burundi at the thirty-third session

Members of the Mission Mr. Christof Heyns (South Africa), Ms. Maya Sahli-Fadel (Algeria) and Mr. Pablo de Greiff (Colombia)
Reports  and related documents

Oral update by Christof Heyns (22 March 2016) (MS Word file, English, Français)

Report A/HRC/33/37 (20 July 2016)

 

 

1995

Mandating authority

Security Council resolution 1012 (1995) of 28 Aug. 1995

Commission/Mission International commission of inquiry for Burundi 
Mandate

The Security Council requests the Secretary-General to establish, as a matter of urgency, an international commission of inquiry, with the following mandate: (a) to establish the facts relating to the assassination of the President of Burundi on 21 October 1993, the massacres and other related serious acts of violence which followed; (b) to recommend measures of a legal, political or administrative nature, as appropriate, after consultation with the Government of Burundi, and measures with regard to the bringing to justice of persons responsible for those acts, to prevent any repetition of deeds similar to those investigated by the commission and, in general, to eradicate impunity and promote national reconciliation in Burundi

Members of the Mission Mr. Edilbert RAZAFINDRALAMBO (Madagascar), Chair; Mr. Abdelali EL MOUMNI (Morocco), Mr. Mehmet GUNEY (Turkey), Mr. Luis HERRERA MARCANO (Venezuela). Mr. Michel MAURICE (Canada)
Reports  and related documents

Reports S/1996/8 of 5 Jan. 1996, S/1996/682 of 22 Aug. 1996;

Documents

 

 

 1993

Mandating authority

Secretary-General at the request of the Government of Burundi.

See also: Security Council S/26757  of 16 Nov. 1993

Commission/Mission Preparatory fact-finding mission to Burundi to investigate the coup d’état of 21 October 1993, the assassination of President Melchior Ndadaye, and the subsequent massacres
Mandate In response to a request from the Minister of State for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Burundi, the Security General established a Preliminary Fact-Finding Mission to investigate the coup d'état and massacre of October 1993
Members of the Mission Mr. Siméon AKE (Côte d’Ivoire), Mr. Martin HUSLID (Norway), Mrs. Michèle POLIACOF
Reports  and related documents Report S/1995/157 of 24 Feb. 1995

Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria (Boko Haram)

  2015

Mandating authority

Human Rights Council resolution S-23/1 of 1 April 2015 (in A/70/53, pp. 149-151)

Commission/Mission OHCHR Fact-finding mission to investigate atrocities committed by the terrorist group Boko Haram and its effects on human rights in the affected States [Cameroon, Chad, the Niger, Nigeria]
Mandate Human Rights Council requests the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to prepare a report on violations and abuses of human rights and atrocities committed by the terrorist group Boko Haram in the States affected by such acts
Members of the Mission Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
Reports  and related documents Report A/HRC/30/67 of 9 Dec. 2015 

 

 

Central African Republic

  2013

Mandating authority

Security Council resolution 2127 (2013) of 5 Dec. 2013 

Commission/Mission

International Commission of Inquiry to investigate events in the Central African Republic since 1 January 2013

Press-release SG/A/1451-AFR/2799 of 22 Jan. 2014

Mandate Security Council requests that the Secretary-General rapidly establish an international commission of inquiry for an initial period of one year, including experts in both international humanitarian law and human rights law, in order immediately to investigate reports of violations of international humanitarian law, international human rights law and abuses of human rights in CAR by all parties since 1 January 2013, to compile information, to help identify the perpetrators of such violations and abuses, point to their possible criminal responsibility and to help ensure that those responsible are held accountable, and calls on all parties to cooperate fully with such a commission
Members of the Mission

Bernard A. MUNA, Chaiperson (Camerron),  Ms Fatimata M’BAYE (Mauritania) and Mr. Philip ALSTON (USA)

Mr.Jorge Castañeda, appointed initially as one of the commissioners, resigned for personal reasons. On 18 August 2014 the Secretary-General appointed Philip Alston (Australi(a) as a member of the Commission

Reports  and related documents

Reports S/2014/373 of 26 June 2014, S/2014/928 of 22 Dec. 2014;

Documents

  

 2013

Mandating authority

Human Rights Council resolution 23/18 of 13 June 2013 (in A/68/53, pp. 168-170)

Commission/Mission

OHCHR Fact-finding mission to  Central African Republic

Mandate Gather information on human rights violations committed in Bangui and if possible, in other localities, from December 2012 to the date of the  arrival of the FFM in CAR, in an independent and impartial manner;
Submit to the High Commissioner a report setting out the findings of the mission regarding violations of international human rights law, and the nature and extent of those violations, committed during the relevant time period
Members of the Mission

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

Reports  and related documents

Statement by N. Pillay, High Commissioner for Human Rights of 20 Jan. 2014

Report A/HRC/24/59 of 12 Sep. 2013

 

 

Côte d'Ivoire

  2011

Mandating authority

Human Rights Council resolution 16/25 of 25 Mar. 2011 (in A/66/53, pp. 9-11)

Commission/Mission International Independent Commission of Inquiry on the Situation of Human Rights in Côte d'Ivoire
Mandate Human Rights Council decides to dispatch an independent, international commission of inquiry, to be appointed by the President of the Human Rights Council, taking into consideration the importance of ensuring the equal participation and full involvement of women, to investigate the facts and circumstances surrounding the allegations of serious abuses and violations of human rights committed in Côte d’Ivoire following the presidential election of 28 November 2010, in order to identify those responsible for such acts and to bring them to justice, and to present its findings to the Council at its seventeenth session, and calls upon all Ivorian parties to cooperate fully with the commission of inquiry
Members of the Mission Mr. Vitit MUNTARBHORN (Thailand), chairperson; Ms. Reine ALAPINI GANSOU (Benin), Mr. Suliman BALDO (Sudan)
Reports  and related documents

Report A/HRC/17/48 of 1 July 2011

Documents

 

 2004

Mandating authority

Security Council S/PRST/2004/17 of 25 May 2004

Commission/Mission International commission of inquiry to investigate all human rights violations committed in Côte d’Ivoire
Mandate The Security Council requests [...] the Secretary-General to establish as soon as possible the international commission of inquiry, as recommended by the commission of inquiry of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and requested by the Government of Côte d’Ivoire, in order to investigate all human rights violations committed in Côte d’Ivoire since September 19, 2002, and determine responsibility
Members of the Mission  
Reports  and related documents

Report not published as an official document;

Documents

 

 2004

Mandating authority

Acting High Commissioner for Human Rights, upon request of the UN Secretary-General

Commission/Mission Commission of Inquiry on the events connected with the march planned for 25 March 2004 in Abidjan 
Mandate Mr. Franca SCIUTO (Italy), Chair;  Ms. Vera DUARTE, (Cap verde), Mr. Eugene NINDORERA (Burundi)
Members of the Mission To investigate alleged human rights violations committed in connection with the march planned for Abidjan on 25 March 2004; …the mandate would consist of establishing the facts concerning the responsibility for alleged atrocities committed in connection with the planned march on 25 March 2004
Reports  and related documents

Report S/2004/384 of 13 May 2004;

Documents

 

  2002

 

Mandating authority

High Commissioner for Human Rights, upon request of the UN Secretary-General

Commission/Mission OHCHR Fact-finding mission to Côte d'Ivoire to compile information on the human rights and humanitarian situation 
Mandate Secretary-General requests the High Commissioner for Human Rights to send a mission to gather precise information regarding the violations of human rights and international humanitarian law in Côte d’Ivoire, including through the dispatch of a fact-finding mission (See S/PRST/2002/42)
Members of the Mission Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
Reports  and related documents Report S/2003/90 of 24 Jan. 2003

 

 2000

Mandating authority

Secretary-General upon the request of the Government of Côte d'Ivoire

Commission/Mission Commission d'enquête internationale pour la Côte d'Ivoire (Mission exploratoire  - Dec. 2000 et déploiement de la Commission)
Mandate La Commission d'enquête internationale pour la Côte d'Ivoire a été établie par le Secrétaire général de l'Organisation des Nations Unies suite à des consultations avec les autorités ivoiriennes pour faire la lumière sur les allégations de violations des droits de l'homme ayant suivi les élections présidentielles d'octobre 2000
Members of the Mission  
Reports  and related documents Report DPI/2221 (2001) (in French only)

Democratic Republic of the Congo

2018

Mandating authority

Human Right Council resolution 38/20 of 6 July 2018

Commission/Mission International Team of Experts on the Kasai region (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (OHCHR website)
Mandate

The Human Rights Council requests the High Commissioner to dispatch a team of two international human rights experts, with adequate support, to be charged with monitoring, evaluating, providing support and reporting on the implementation by the Democratic Republic of the Congo of the recommendations made by the previous team of international experts in its report, in particular with regard to the fight against impunity and the measures to promote reconciliation, and to make recommendations in this regard, as appropriate

Members of the Mission

Mr. Bacre Waly Ndiaye (Senegal), Ms. Sheila B. Keetharuth (Mauritius)

Reports  and related documents

Oral presentation made at Human Rights Council, 40th session, 19 March 2019 (French only)

 

2017

Mandating authority

Human Right Council resolution 35/33 of 23 June 2017

Commission/Mission Team of international experts on the situation in Kasai (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (OHCHR website: English, Français)
Mandate

The Human Rights Council requests the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to dispatch a team of international experts, including experts from the region, to collect and preserve information, to determine the facts and circumstances in accordance with international standards and practice, and while ensuring the protection of all persons who will cooperate with the team, in cooperation with the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, including by facilitating visits and access to the country, sites and persons, concerning alleged human rights violations and abuses, and violations of international humanitarian law in the Kasai regions, and to forward to the judicial authorities of the Democratic Republic of the Congo the conclusions of this investigation in order to establish the truth and to ensure that the perpetrators of deplorable crimes are all accountable to the judicial authorities of the Democratic Republic of the Congo;

Also requests the High Commissioner to present an oral update, and to invite the team to participate in an enhanced interactive dialogue at its thirty-seventh session, and requests the High Commissioner to present a comprehensive report with the team’s findings, and to invite the team to participate in an interactive dialogue at its thirty-eighth session.

Members of the Mission

Mr Bacre Waly Ndiaye (Senegal), Ms Sheila B. Keetharuth (Mauritius)

Reports  and related documents

Report A/HRC/38/31 (3 July 2018)
Report A/HRC/38/CRP.1 (Français) (29 June 2018)

 

 2008

Mandating authority

UN Secretary-General S/2006/390 of 13 June 2006, para. 54. 

Established after consultations among relevant UN agencies and partners and with the Congolese Government. The Secretary-General requested the OHCHR to lead the exercise, in cooperation with the Dept. of Peacekeeping Operations and UND

Commission/Mission Mapping exercise of the most serious violations of human rights and international humanitarian law committed within the territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo between March 1993 and June 2003
Mandate Conduct a mapping exercise of the most serious violations of human rights and international humanitarian law committed within the territory of the DRC between March 1993 and June 2003. Assess the existing capacities within the national justice system to deal appropriately with such human rights violations that may be uncovered. Formulate a series of options aimed at assisting the Government of the DRC in identifying appropriate transitional justice mechanisms to deal with the legacy of these violations, in terms of truth, justice, reparation and reform, taking into account ongoing efforts by the DRC authorities, as well as the support of the international community
Members of the Mission Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
Reports  and related documents Report (Aug. 2010) available from the OHCHR website

 

1997

Mandating authority

UN Secretary-General S/1997/617 of 6 Aug. 1997

Commission/Mission UN Investigative team charged with investigating serious violations of human rights and international humanitarian law in the Democratic Republic of the Congo committed since March 1993
Mandate To“investigate gross violations  of Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law committed in the Democratic Republic of Congo from I March 1993 ... the Investigative Team’s principle task being to collect and analyse information, testimony and other evidence in order to establish facts and responsibilities in gross violations.”
Members of the Mission Mr. Atsu-Koffi AMEGA (Togo), Mr. Andrew CHIGOVERA (Zimbabwe), Mr. Mr. Reed BRODY (USA)

Mr.Paul LABERGE (Canada) and Mr. Daniel O’DONNELL (USA and Ireland) appointed to replace Mr. Chigovera and Mr. Brody who had resigned
Reports  and related documents Report S/1998/581 of 29 June 1998;
Documents

 

1997

Mandating authority

Commission on Human Rights resolutions 1997/58 of 15 Apr. 1997 (in E/CN.4/1997/150pp. 194-198); 2000/15 of 18 Apr. 2000 (in E/2000/23, pp.99-105); 2001/19 of 20 Apr. 2001 (in E/2001/23, pp. 114-121); 2002/14 of 19 Apr. 2002 (in E/2002/23, pp. 71-78)

Commission/Mission Joint investigative mission to investigate allegations of massacres and other issues affecting human rights which arise from the situation prevailing In Eastern Zaire (now Democratic Republic of the Congo) since September 1996
Mandate

Commission on Human Rights decides to request the Special Rapporteurs on the situation of human rights in Zaire and on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions and a member of the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances to carry out a joint mission to investigate allegations of massacres and other issues affecting human rights which arise from the situation prevailing in eastern Zaire since September 1996 (resolution 1997/58)

Commission on Human Rights requests the Special Rapporteurs on the situation of human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions and a member of the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances to carry out, as soon as security considerations permit and, where appropriate, in cooperation with the National Commission of Inquiry to investigate alleged human rights violations and breaches of international humanitarian law in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) between 1996 and 1997, a joint mission to investigate all massacres carried out on the territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, including those in the province of South Kivu, and other atrocities as referred to in the report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo [E/CN.4/1999/42], with a view to bringing to justice those responsible (resolutions 2000/15, 2001/19, 2002/14)

Members of the Mission

Mr. Roberto GARRETON (Chile), Mr. Bacre Waly NDIAYE (Senegal), Mr. Jonas FOLI (Ghana)

Reports  and related documents

Report E/CN.4/1998/64 of 23 Jan. 1998,

Documents

 

Darfur (Sudan)

  2006

Mandating authority

Human Rights Council decision S-4/101 of 13 Dec. 2006 (in A/62/53, p. 87)

Commission/Mission High-level Mission on the situation of human rights in Darfur
Mandate

Human Rights Council decides to dispatch to dispatch a High-Level Mission to assess the human rights situation in Darfur and the needs of the Sudan

Members of the Mission

Ms Jody WILLIAMS, Head of Mission (USA), Mr. Bertrand RAMCHARAN (Guyana), Mr. Mart NUTT (Estonia), Mr. Makarim WIBISONO (Indonesia), Mr. Patrice TONDA (Gabon) and Ms Sima SAMAR (Afghanistan)

On 14 February 2007, Mr. Makarim Wibisono discontinued his participation in the Mission

Reports  and related documents

Report A/HRC/4/80 of 9 Mar. 2007;

Documents

 

   2004

Mandating authority

Acting High Commissioner for Human Rights

Commission/Mission OHCHR Fact-finding mission to Darfur
Mandate To assess the human rights situation in Darfur                                                                                                    dfdf adf adf
Members of the Mission Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
Reports  and related documents Report E/CN.4/2005/3 of 7 May 2004

 

  2004

Mandating authority

Security Council resolution 1564 (2004) of 18 Sep. 2004

Commission/Mission International commission of inquiry on Darfur in order immediately to investigate reports of violations of international humanitarian law and human rights law in Darfur by all parties
Mandate Security Council requests that the Secretary-General rapidly establish an international commission of inquiry in order immediately to investigate reports of violations of international humanitarian law and human rights law in Darfur by all parties, to determine also whether or not acts of genocide have occurred, and to identify the perpetrators of such violations with a view to ensuring that those responsible are held accountable, calls on all parties to cooperate fully with such a commission
Members of the Mission Mr. Antonio CASSESE (Italy) Chair; Mr. Mohamed FAYEK (Egypt), Ms. Hina JILANI (Pakistan), Mr. Dumisa NTSEBEZA (South Africa), Ms Therese STRIGGNER-SCOTT (Ghana) 
Reports  and related documents

Report S/2005/60 of 1 Feb. 2005;

Documents

 

 

Eritrea

2015

Mandating authority

Human Rights Council resolution 29/18 of 2 July 2015 (in A/70/53. pp. 203-207)

Commission/Mission Commission of Inquiry to investigate all alleged violations of human rights in Eritrea (OHCHR web site)
Mandate

Human Rights Council decides to extend, for a period of one year, the mandate of the commission of inquiry to investigate systematic, widespread and gross violations of human rights in Eritrea with a view to ensuring full accountability, including where these violations may amount to crimes against humanity

Members of the Mission Mr. Mike SMITH, Chairperson (Australia), Mr. Victor DANKWA (Ghana),  and Ms Sheila B. KEETHARUTH (Mauritius)
Reports  and related documents

Reports A/HRC/32/47 of 9 May 2016, A/HRC/29/42 of 4 June 2015, A/HRC/29/CRP.1 of 16 June 2015 (Advance version);

Oral updates: 

Statement by Mr. Mike Smith, Chairperson of the Commission of Inquiry at the 32nd session of the Human Rights Council (21 June 2016)

Oral Update by Mr. Mike Smith, Chair of the Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in Eritrea, at the 70th session of the General Assembly (29 Oct. 2015)

Oral Update by Mr. Mike Smith, Chair of the Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in Eritrea at the HRC 28th session (16 Mar. 2015)

Documents

 

2014

Mandating authority

Human Rights Council resolution 26/24 of 27 June 2014 (in A/69/53, pp. 194-198)

Commission/Mission Commission of Inquiry to investigate all alleged violations of human rights in Eritrea (OHCHR web site)
Mandate

Human Rights Council decides to establish, for a period of one year, a commission of inquiry comprising three members, one of whom should be the Special Rapporteur, with the other two members appointed by the President of the Human Rights Council; also decides that the commission of inquiry will investigate all alleged violations of human rights in Eritrea, as outlined in the reports of the Special Rapporteur

Members of the Mission Mr. Mike SMITH, Chairperson (Australia), Mr. Victor DANKWA (Ghana),  and Ms Sheila B. KEETHARUTH (Mauritius)
Reports  and related documents See the current mandate

Guinea

  2009

Mandating authority

UN Secretary-General S/2009/556 of 28 Oct. 2009

Commission/Mission International commission of Inquiry on Guinea
Mandate

The Commission of Inquiry shall investigate the facts and circumstances of the events of 28 September 2009 and related events  in their immediate aftermath. To that end, the Commission shall (a) establish the facts; (b) qualify the crimes; (c) determine responsibilities and, where possible, identify those responsible; and (d) make recommendations, including, in particular, on accountability measure

Members of the Mission Mr. Mohamed BEDJAOUI (Algeria) Chairperson, Ms. Françoise Ngendahyo KAYIRAMIRWA (Burundi), Ms. Pramila PATTEN (Mauritius)
Reports  and related documents

Report S/2009/693 of 18 Dec. 2009;

Documents

Kenya

 2008

Mandating authority

High Commissioner for Human Rights

Commission/Mission OHCHR Fact-finding mission to Kenya to look into the violence and allegations of grave human rights violations following the presidential elections in December 2007
Mandate To look into the violence and allegations of grave human rights violations following the presidential elections in December 2007
Members of the Mission Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
Reports  and related documents Report of the mission available at the OHCHR website

 

Liberia

 1993

Mandating authority

Statement by President of the Security Council S/25918 of 9 June 1993

Commission/Mission Panel of Inquiry on Liberia to conduct a thorough and full investigation of the massacre of the civilians, which occurred near Harbel, Liberia on the morning of 6 June 1993
Mandate The Security Council requests the Secretary-General to commence immediately a thorough and full investigation of the massacre, including any allegations as to the perpetrators, whoever they may be, and to report to it as soon as possible. It warns that those found responsible for such serious violations of international humanitarian law will be held accountable for such crimes and demands that the leaders of any faction responsible for such acts effectively control their forces and take decisive steps to ensure that such deplorable tragedies do not happen again
Members of the Mission Mr. Amos WAKO (Kenya), Chair; Mr. Robert GERSONY (USA), Mr. Mahmoud KASSEM (Egypt)
Reports  and related documents Documents; Letter from the Secretary-General S/26265 of 7 Aug. 1993

Report "The Carter camp massacre: results of an investigation by the Panel of Inquiry appointed by the Secretary-General into the massacre near Harbel, Liberia, on the night of June 5/6, 1993, submitted to the United Nations Secretary-General 10 September 1993." 
Not published as an official document

 

Libya

 2020

Mandating authority

Human Rights Council  resolution 43/39 of 22 June 2020 (in A/75/53, pp. 133-139)

Commission/Mission OHCHR Investigation mission to Libya (OHCHR website)
Mandate

Human Rights Council requests the High Commissioner to immediately establish and dispatch a fact-finding mission to Libya, and to designate experts to implement, in an independent and impartial manner, for a period of one year, the following mandate:

(a) to establish the facts and circumstances of the situation of human rights throughout Libya, and to collect and review relevant information, to document alleged violations and abuses of international human rights law and international humanitarian law by all parties in Libya since the beginning of 2016, including any gendered dimensions of such violations and abuses, and to preserve evidence with a view to ensuring that perpetrators of violations or abuses of international human rights law and international humanitarian law are held accountable;

(b) to work in cooperation with the Libyan authorities, the League of Arab States, the African Union and the United Nations Support Mission in Libya.

Members of the Mission Mr. Mohamed Auajjar (Morocco) - Chair, Ms. Tracy Robinson (Jamaica), Mr. Chaloka Beyani (Zambia and the UK)
Reports  and related documents 2020, 5 Oct. - Statement of Mr Mohamed Auajjar at the 45th Human Rights Council session

 

 2015

Mandating authority

Human Rights Council  resolution 28/30 of 27 Mar. 2015 (in A/70/53, pp. 128-132)

Commission/Mission OHCHR Investigation mission to Libya (OHCHR website)
Mandate Human Rights Council requests the High Commissioner urgently to dispatch a mission to investigate violations and abuses of international human rights law committed in Libya since the beginning of 2014, and to establish the facts and circumstances of such abuses and violations with a view to avoiding impunity and ensuring full accountability, in coordination with the United Nations Support Mission in Libya, inviting  the assistance of relevant experts, particularly  the National Council for Civil Liberties and Human Rights, and of special procedures mandate holders, and to submit to the Human Rights Council at its thirty-first session, under agenda item 10, a written report on its findings, which should also contain an update on technical assistance, capacity-building and cooperation with the Government of Libya,  with recommendations for future capacity-building needs that include but are not limited to the justice system and accountability
Members of the Mission Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
Reports  and related documents Report A/HRC/31/CRP.3 of 15 Feb. 2016

 

  2011

Mandating authority

Human Rights Council resolutions S-15/1 of 25 Feb. 2011 (in A/66/53, pp. 25-27) and 17/17 of 17 June 2011 (in A/66/53, pp. 170-171)

Commission/Mission International Commission of Inquiry on Libya
Mandate

Human Rights Council decides to urgently dispatch an independent, international commission of inquiry, to be appointed by the President of the Human Rights Council, to investigate all alleged violations of international human rights law in Libya, to establish the facts and circumstances of such violations and of the crimes perpetrated, and, where possible to identify those responsible, to make recommendations, in particular, on accountability measures, all with a view to ensuring that those individuals responsible are held accountable, and to report to the Council at its seventeenth session, and calls upon the Libyan authorities to fully cooperate with the commission (resolution S-15/1)

Human Rights Council decides to extend the mandate of the commission of inquiry established by the Human Rights Council in its resolution S-15/1, and requests the commission to continue its work, including through visits, and to provide an oral update to the Council at its eighteenth session, and a final written report at its nineteenth session (resolution 17/17)

Members of the Mission

Mr. Philippe KIRSCH (Canada), Chairperson from October 2011; Mr. Cherif BASSIOUNI (Egypt) (originally the Chairperson) and Ms. Asma KHADER (Jordan)

Reports  and related documents

Reports A/HRC/17/44 of 28 Jan. 2014,  A/HRC/19/68 of 28 Jan. 2014, A/HRC/19/CRP.1 of 28 Jan. 2014 (available here (Annex I) in MS Word format);

Documents

 

Mali

2018

Mandating authority

Established by the UN Secretary-General on 19 Jan. 2018 in accordance with article 46 of the June 2015 Agreement on Peace and Reconciliation in Mali (UN COI for Mali page

Commission/Mission International Commission of Inquiry for Mali
Mandate
  • Investigate allegations of abuses and serious violations of international human rights law and international humanitarian law, including allegations of conflict-related sexual violence, committed throughout the territory of Mali between 1 January 2012 and the date of the establishment of the Commission (19 January 2018);
  • Establish the facts and circumstances concerning the commission of such abuses and violations, including those that may constitute international crimes, and identify those allegedly responsible for such abuses and violations;
  • Submit a written report on its investigation and its conclusions to the Secretary-General within a year from the date of the effective commencement of its work. In the report, the Commission will also present recommendations to the Secretary-General and all competent authorities, with a view to combating impunity in relation to the abuses and violations identified.
Members of the Mission Ms. Lena Sundh, Chairperson (Sweden), Mr. Simon Munzu (Cameroon), Mr. Vinod Boolell (Mauritius)
Reports  and related documents

Report S/2020/1332 (29 Jan. 2021)
Documents

 

 2013

Mandating authority

Human Rights Council resolution 22/18 of 21 Mar. 2013 (in A/68/53, pp. 59-61)

Commission/Mission OHCHR Fact-finding mission on the situation of human rights in Mali
Mandate Human Rights Council requests the High Commissioner to provide it with an updated report on the human rights situation in Mali for its consideration at its twenty-third session
Members of the Mission Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
Reports  and related documents

Report A/HRC/23/57 of 26 June 2013;

Documents

 

Mozambique

  1973

Mandating authority

General Assembly resolution 3114 (XXVIII) of 12 Dec. 1973

Commission/Mission Commission of inquiry on the reported massacres in Mozambique
Mandate General Assembly decides to establish a representative Commission of Inquiry on the Reported Massacres in Mozambique, consisting of five members to be appointed by the President of the General Assembly after due consultations with Member States; instructs the Commission of Inquiry to carry out an investigation of the reported atrocities, to solicit the co-operation and assistance of the national liberation movement and to report its findings to the General Assembly as soon as possible
Members of the Mission Mr. Shailendra Kumar UPADHYAY (Nepal) Chairperson, Mr. Heinz-Dieter WINTER (German Democratic Republic), Mr. Roberto MARTINEZ ORDONEZ (Honduras), Mr. Eliseo PEREZ CADALSO (Honduras), Mr. Blaise RABETAFIKA (Madagascar) and Mr. Atle GRAHL-MADSEN (Norway)
Reports  and related documents

Report A/9621 (General Assembly Official Records, Supplement 21, 1974);

Documents

Rwanda

  1994

Mandating authority

Security Council resolution 935 (1994) of 1 July 1994

Commission/Mission Commission of experts to to examine and analyse the continuing reports indicating that systematic, widespread and flagrant violations of international humanitarian law, including acts of genocide, have been committed in Rwanda
Mandate Security Council requests the Secretary-General to establish, as a matter of urgency, an impartial Commission of Experts to examine and analyse information submitted pursuant to the present resolution, together with such further information as the Commission of Experts may obtain through its own investigations or the efforts of other persons or bodies, including the information made available by the Special Rapporteur for Rwanda, with a view to providing the SecretaryGeneral with its conclusions on the evidence of grave violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of Rwanda, including the evidence of possible acts of genocide
Members of the Mission

Mr. Atsu-Koffi AMEGA (Togo) Chair, Ms. Habi DIENG (Guinea), Mr. Salifou FOMBA (Mali)

Reports  and related documents

Reports S/1994/1125 of 4 Oct. 1994 and S/1994/1405 of 9 Dec. 1994;

Documents

 

 

South Sudan

2020

Mandating authority

Human Rights Council resolutions 43/27 of 22 June 2020, 46/23 of 24 Mar. 2021

Commission/Mission United Nations Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan. OHCHR website
Mandate Human Rights Council decides to extend the mandate of the Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan, composed of three members, for a period of one year, renewable as authorized by the Human Rights Council, with the following mandate:
(a) To monitor and report on the situation of human rights in South Sudan, and to make recommendations to prevent deterioration of the situation with a view to its improvement;
(b) To determine and report the facts and circumstances of, to collect and preserve evidence of, and to clarify responsibility for alleged violations and abuses of human rights and related crimes, including sexual and gender-based violence and ethnic violence, with a view to ending impunity and providing accountability, and to make such information available also to all transitional justice mechanisms, including those to be established pursuant to chapter V of the Revitalized Agreement, including the hybrid court for South Sudan, once established in cooperation with the African Union;
(c) To provide guidance on transitional justice, including accountability, reconciliation and healing, as appropriate, and to make recommendations on technical assistance to the Government of South Sudan to support accountability, reconciliation and healing;
(d) To engage with the Government of South Sudan, international and regional mechanisms, including the United Nations, the United Nations Mission in South Sudan and the African Union, including by building upon the work of the African Union Commission of Inquiry on South Sudan and African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, including the Partners Forum, the Chair of the reconstituted Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission and civil society, with a view to promoting accountability for human rights violations and abuses committed by all parties;
(e) To make recommendations on technical assistance and capacity-building, including to law enforcement institutions, on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including on addressing sexual and gender-based violence;
(f) To make recommendations on technical assistance and capacity building for implementation of chapter V of the Revitalized Agreement;
(g) To make recommendations on a follow-up process for the provision of technical assistance and capacity-building to South Sudan.

 
Members of the Mission

Ms. Yasmin Sooka (South Africa) - Chairperson, Mr. Andrew Clapham (UK and Switzerland), Mr. Barney Afako (Uganda)

Former Commissioners:
Mr. Kenneth Scott (United States), Mr. Godfrey Musila (Kenya)

Reports  and related documents

Reports:
A/HRC/46/53 (4 Feb. 2021), A/HRC/43/56 (31 Jan. 2020),  A/HRC/40/69 (18 Feb 2019), A/HRC/37/71  of 14 Mar 2018,  A/HRC/34/63 of 6 Mar. 2017
Conference room papers:
A/HRC/46/CRP.2 (19 Feb. 2021),A/HRC/45/CRP.4 (6 Oct. 2020), A/HRC/45/CRP.3  (6 Oct. 2020), A/HRC/40/CRP.1 (21 Feb 2019), A/HRC/37/CRP.2 of 23 Feb. 2018

 

2016-2019

Mandating authority Human Rights Council resolution 34/25 of 24 Mar. 2017, renewed by resolution 34/25 of 24 Mar. 2017, 37/31 of 23 Mar. 2018, 40/19 (22 Mar. 2019)
Commission/Mission United Nations Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan (OHCHR website)
Mandate Human Rights Council decides to extend the mandate of the Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan, with the following mandate:
(a) To monitor and report on the situation of human rights in  South Sudan, and to make recommendations to prevent further deterioration of the situation with a view to its improvement;
(b) To determine and report the facts and circumstances of, collect and preserve evidence  of, and  clarify  responsibility  for  alleged  gross  violations  and  abuses  of  human rights and related crimes, including sexual and gender-based violence and ethnic  violence, with a view to ending impunity and providing accountability, and to make such information available also to  all  transitional  justice  mechanisms,  including  those  to  be  established pursuant to chapter V of the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South  Sudan,  including  the hybrid court  for  South  Sudan,  once  established  in  cooperation with the African Union;
(c) To report on the factual basis for transitional justice and reconciliation;
(d) To  provide guidance  on  transitional  justice,  including  accountability  and reconciliation  and  healing,  as  appropriate,  and – once  the  Government  of  South  Sudan commits to cooperating  with  the  African Union on establishing the  hybrid court for South Sudan – to  make recommendations  on  technical  assistance  to  the  Government  to  support accountability, reconciliation and healing;
(e) To  engage  with  the  Government  of  South  Sudan,  international  and  regional mechanisms, including the United Nations, the United Nations Mission in South Sudan, the African Union, including by building upon the work of its Commission of Inquiry on South Sudan and its African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development,including the Partners Forum, the Chair of the Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission and civil society, with a view to providing support to national, regional and international efforts to promote accountability for human rights violations and abuses;
(f) To  make  recommendations  on technical  assistance  and  capacity-building,  as appropriate,  including  to  law  enforcement  institutions,  on  the  promotion  and  protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including on addressing sexual and gender-based violence; 
 
 

Ms Yasmin Sooka, Chair (South Africa), Mr Andrew Clapham (United Kingdom), Mr Barney Afako (Uganda)

Former Commissioners:
Mr. Kenneth Scott (United States), Mr. Godfrey Musila (Kenya)

Reports  and related documents

See the current year mandate

 

2016

Mandating authority

Human Rights Council resolution S-26/1 of 14 Dec. 2016

Commission/Mission United Nations Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan. 

OHCHR Press-release (22 July 2016), OHCHR website
Mandate Human Rights Council decides to extend the mandate of the Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan, composed of three members, for a period of one year beyond its original mandate, renewable as authorized by the Human Rights Council, with the following amended mandate:

      (a)  To monitor and report, including publicly, on the situation of human rights in South Sudan, and to make recommendations to prevent further deterioration of the situation with a view to its improvement;

      (b) To investigate alleged violations and abuses of human rights and related crimes, including those involving sexual and gender-based violence and ethnic violence, to establish the facts and circumstances thereof, and to identify alleged perpetrators of such alleged violations and abuses and of crimes perpetrated with a view to avoiding impunity and ensuring accountability;

      (c) To assess past reports on the situation of human rights since December 2013 in order to establish a factual basis for transitional justice;

      (d) To provide guidance on transitional justice, including accountability, and reconciliation and healing, as appropriate, and – once the Government commits to ending the violence against the civilian population and to cooperating with the hybrid court for South Sudan – to make recommendations on technical assistance to the Government to support accountability, reconciliation and healing;

      (e) To engage with the Government of the Republic of South Sudan, international and regional mechanisms, including the United Nations, the United Nations Mission in South Sudan, the African Union and its African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission Chair and civil society, with a view to providing information based on its engagement with relevant stakeholders, and to provide support to national, regional and international efforts to promote accountability for human rights violations and abuses, including those involving sexual and gender-based violence and ethnic violence;

      (f) To make recommendations on technical assistance and capacity-building, as appropriate, in the promotion and protection of human rights, including on addressing sexual and gender-based violence and ethnic violence
Members of the Mission Ms Yasmin Sooka (South Africa), Mr. Kenneth Scott (USA), Mr. Godfrey Musila (Kenya)
Reports  and related documents

See the current year mandate

 

Mandating authority

Human Rights Council resolution 31/20 of 23 Mar. 2016

Commission/Mission United Nations Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan. 

OHCHR Press-release (22 July 2016), OHCHR website
Mandate Human Rights Council decides to establish a Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan, with the following mandate:  

(a) To monitor and report on the situation of human rights in South Sudan and make recommendations for its improvement;
(b) To assess past reports on the situation of human rights since December 2013 in order to establish a factual basis for transitional justice and reconciliation;
(c) To provide guidance on transitional justice, accountability, reconciliation and healing, as appropriate, and — once the transitional Government of national unity is fully formed, operational and commits to ending the violence against the civilian population and to cooperating with the hybrid court for South Sudan — to make recommendations on technical assistance to the transitional Government of national unity to support transitional justice, accountability, reconciliation and healing;
(d) To engage with other international and regional mechanisms, including the United Nations, the United Nations Mission in South Sudan, the African Union and its African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission Chair and civil society, with a view to providing support to national, regional and international efforts to promote accountability for human rights violations and abuses 
Members of the Mission Ms Yasmin Sooka (South Africa), Mr. Kenneth Scott (USA), Mr. Godfrey Musila (Kenya)
Reports  and related documents

See the current year mandate

 

2015

Mandating authority

Human Rights Council resolution 29/13 of 2 July 2015 (in A/70/53, pp. 186-190)

Commission/Mission OHCHR Assessment mission to improve human rights, accountability, reconciliation and capacity in South Sudan. 

OHCHR Press-release (26 Oct. 2015)
Mandate Human Rights Council requests the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights:  

Urgently to undertake a mission to engage with the Government of South Sudan, to monitor and report on the situation of human rights, and to undertake a comprehensive assessment of allegations of violations and abuses of human rights with a view to ensuring accountability and complementarity with the African Union Commission of Inquiry
Members of the Mission Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
Reports  and related documents

Reports A/HRC/31/49 (22 Apr. 2016 and A/HRC/31/CRP.6 (10 Mar. 2016);

Documents

 

Togo

  2005

Mandating authority

High Commissioner for Human Rights

Commission/Mission OHCHR fact-finding mission to Togo
Mandate Etablissement des faits pour faire la lumière sur les violences et les allégations de violations des droits de l’homme survenues au Togo avant, pendant et après l’élection présidentielle, du 24 avril 2005
Members of the Mission M. Doudou DIÈNE,  Special Envoy of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
Reports  and related documents Rapport - La mission d'établissement des faits chargée de faire la lumière sur les violences et les allégations de violations des droits de l'homme survenues au Togo avant, pendant et après l'élection présidentielle du 24 avril 2005 - submitted 29 Aug. 2005. 
Not published as an official document. 

Available from the OHCHR Togo site

 

  2000

Mandating authority

Established jointly by the UN Secretary-General and the Secretary-General of African Unity upon request of the Government of Togo 

Commission/Mission Commission of inquiry for Togo 
Mandate To verify the truth of allegations contained in an Amnesty International report of 5 May 1999 that hundreds of extrajudicial executions had taken place in Togo during 1998 and to report to the two Secretary-General
Members of the Mission Mr. Mahamat Hassan ABAKAR (Chad), Chair; Prof. Paulo Sergio PINHEIRO (Brazil), Mr. Issaka SOUNA (Niger)
Reports  and related documents

Report E/CN.4/2001/134-E/CN.4/Sub.2/2001/3 of 22 Feb. 2001;

Documents

Western Sahara

  2006

Mandating authority

High Commissioner for Human Rights

Commission/Mission OHCHR mission to Western Sahara and refugee camps in Tindouf
Mandate To gather information about the human rights situation in Western Sahara and in the refugee camps in Tindouf, Algeria; make recommendations on how to assist the concerned parties to improve the promotion and protection of human rights of the people of Western Sahara
Members of the Mission Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
Reports  and related documents Report submitted to the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights on 8 Sep. 2006. Not published as an official document

 

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