Skip to Main Content
Research Guides United Nations Office at Geneva Library & Archives

International Commissions of Inquiry, Fact-finding Missions: Europe



Mandating authority

Human Rights Council resolution 46/20 of 24 Mar. 2021

Commission/Mission OHCHR examination of the human rights situation in Belarus (OHCHR Website)
Mandate Requests the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, with assistance from relevant experts and special procedure mandate holders:
(a)    To monitor and report on the situation of human rights, to carry out a comprehensive examination of all alleged human rights violations committed in Belarus since 1 May 2020, including the possible gender dimensions of such violations, to establish the facts and circumstances surrounding the alleged violations, and to collect, consolidate, preserve and analyse information and evidence with a view to contributing to accountability for perpetrators and justice for victims and, where possible, to identify those responsible;
(b)    To make general recommendations on improving respect for and the protection of human rights, and to provide guidance on access to justice and accountability, as appropriate;
(c)    To engage with the Belarusian authorities and all stakeholders, in particular Belarusian, regional and international civil society, international human rights organizations, United Nations agencies, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and relevant States with a view to exchanging information, as appropriate, and providing support for national, regional and international efforts to promote accountability for human rights violations in Belarus;
Members of the Mission

Ms. Karinna Moskalenko, Chair (Russian Federation),  Ms. Susan Bazilli (Canada) and Mr. Marko Milanović (Serbia)

Reports  and related documents

09 March 2022, Press release on report : UN report details scale and patterns of human rights violations committed with impunity (English)

4 March 2022, Human Rights Council Report AEV A/HRC/49/71, Situation of human rights in Belarus in the run-up to the 2020 presidential election and in its aftermath

29 March 2021, Human Rights Council resolution 46/20: Situation of human rights in Belarus in the run-up to the 2020 presidential election and in its aftermath.



Mandating authority

Human Rights Council resolution 49/1 of 4 Mar. 2022

Commission/Mission Independent International Commission of Inquiry on Ukraine (OHCHR Website)

Through the adoption of resolution 49/1 of 4 March 2022, the Human Rights Council provided the Commission of Inquiry with the following mandate:

  • To investigate all alleged violations and abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law, and related crimes in the context of the aggression against Ukraine by the Russian Federation, and to establish the facts, circumstances and root causes of any such violations and abuses;
  • To collect, consolidate and analyse evidence of such violations and abuses, including their gender dimension, and to systematically record and preserve all information, documentation and evidence, including interviews, witness testimony and forensic material, consistent with international law standards, in view of any future legal proceedings;
  • To document and verify relevant information and evidence, including through field engagement, and to cooperate with judicial and other entities, as appropriate;
  • To identify, where possible, those individuals and entities responsible for violations or abuses of human rights or violations of international humanitarian law, or other related crimes, in Ukraine, with a view to ensuring that those responsible are held accountable;
  • To make recommendations, in particular on accountability measures, all with a view to ending impunity and ensuring accountability, including, as appropriate, individual criminal responsibility, and access to justice for victims;
  • To provide the Human Rights Council, at its fifty-first session, with an oral update, to be followed by an interactive dialogue, and a comprehensive written report at its fifty-second session, to be followed by an interactive dialogue, and to submit a report to the General Assembly at its seventy-seventh session;
Members of the Mission

Erik Møse of Norway, Jasminka Džumhur of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Pablo de Greiff of Colombia

Reports  and related documents

4 March 2022, Human Rights Council resolution 49/1: Situation of human rights in Ukraine stemming from the Russian aggression

The former Yugoslavia


Mandating authority

Security Council resolution 780 (1992) of 6 Oct. 1992

Commission/Mission Commission of experts to investigate situation in the former Yugoslavia 
Mandate Security Council requests the Secretary-General to establish as a matter of urgency, an impartial Commission of Experts to examine and analyse the information submitted pursuant to resolution 771 (1992) and the present resolution, together with such further information as the Commission of Experts may obtain through its own investigations or efforts, of other persons or bodies pursuant to resolution 771 (1992), with a view to providing the Secretary-General with its conclusions on the evidence of grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and other violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia
Members of the Mission

Mr. Frits KALSHOVEN (Netherlands), Chair; Mr. Mahmoud Cherif BASSIOUNI (Egypt), Mr. William J. FENRICK (Canada), Mr. Keba MBAYE (Senegal) and Mr. Torkel OPSAHL (Norway).

Mr. M. Bassiouni appointed as Chair and Ms. Christine CLEIREN (Netherlands) and Ms. Hanne Sophie GREVE (Norway) as new members owing to the resignation of Mr. Kalshoven and the death of Mr. Opsahl

Reports  and related documents

Reports S/25274 of 10 Feb. 1993, S/26545 of 6 Oct. 1993, E/CN.4/1994/130 of 10 Mar. 1994, S/1994/674 of 27 May 1994, S/1994/674 of  27 May 1994, S/1994/674/Add.1 of 31 May 1995,  S/1994/674/Add.2(Vol.I) of 31 May 1995, S/1994/674/Add.2(Vol.II) of 28 Dec. 1994, S/1994/674/Add.2(Vol.III) of 28 Dec. 1994, S/1994/674/Add.2(Vol.IV) of 28 Dec. 1994, S/1994/674/Add.2(Vol.V) of 28 Dec. 1994


Subject Guide

Profile Photo
OHCHR Library
8-14 Avenue de la Paix, CH-1211
Geneva 10
+41 (0)22 928 9790
Subjects: Human Rights