Research Guides United Nations Office at Geneva Library & Archives

Disarmament: Global Issues

Global and Regional instruments - Confidence- and Security-Building Measures (CSBM)

Global instruments

It includes data provided by states on arms transfers as well as information on military holdings, procurement through national production and relevant policies. Its aim is to foster regional and international confidence-building. Database

Regional instruments

Agreement between the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia concluded on 26 January 1996, as directed by the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosian and Herzegovina.

Multilateral treaty between the members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and of the Warsaw Pact, reducing the level of conventional military forces deployable by the States parties within the Treaty-covered area.

Statement issued by the Organization of American States (OAS) following the Conference on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures held in February 1998, in San Salvador, El Salvador.

Statement issued following the Organization of American States (OAS) Vice-Ministerial Conference held in Santiago, Chile, in 1995.

Agreement between the members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Russian Federation signed on 27 May 1997 at Paris.

Agreements between the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia concluded on 21 November 1995, bringing the civil war in Bosnia and Herzegovina to an end.

Document adopted in 1975 as a result of negotiations between the Soviet Union and Western countries at the Conference on Security and Cooperation (CSCE).

Agreement adopted in 1986 by the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), which strengthened and expanded the confidence- and security-building provisions laid out in the Helsinki Final Act.

Agreement signed by 27 parties at Helsinki on 24 March 1992 and entered into force on 1 January 2002. Under the Treaty, parties are entitled to conduct aerial inspections of each other’s national territory.

Set of four successive confidence- and security-building measures (CSBMs) agreements concluded respectively in 1990, 1992, 1994,and 1999.

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This information is based upon Steve Tulliu and Thomas Schmalberger, 2003, Coming to Terms with Security: A Lexicon for Arms Control, Disarmament and Confidence-building, Geneva, UNIDIR. Copyright UNIDIR 2003. Reprinted with permission.

The lexicon is available in English, Arabic, French, Korean and Spanish.

CSBM - Bilateral instruments

Bilateral instruments

INDIA / CHINA

Agreement concluded by India and China on 29 November 1996, elaborating a series of confidence- and security-building measures (CSBMs) to be implemented by the two countries in the interest of maintaining peace and tranquillity along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) along their Himalayan borders, and of contributing towards a final settlement of the boundary issue.

Agreement between China and India concluded on 7 September 1993, aimed at establishing principles for the avoidance of inadvertent conflict along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) on their Himalayan borders, which was established after the 1962 Sino-Indian War.

INDIA / PAKISTAN

Agreement concluded by India and Pakistan on 6 April 1991, whereby the two countries agree to restrict and give one another prior notification of significant military activities.

Agreement between India and Pakistan concluded on 6 April 1991, whereby each country undertakes to adopt adequate measures to ensure that violations of each other’s airspace do not take place.

Accord between India and Pakistan signed on 2 July 1972 after their military clash over East Pakistan one year earlier which resulted in the creation of Bangladesh.

 ISRAEL / EGYPT

Two agreements signed by Egypt and Israel on 17 September 1978. One agreement dealt with establishing a framework for the conclusion of a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel, while the other addressed the conduct of negotiations for the establishment of Palestinian autonomy in the West Bank and Gaza. The Camp David Accords laid the foundation for the Treaty of Peace between Israel and Egypt which was signed a few months later (26 March 1979).

Agreement on the disengagement of Egyptian and Israeli armed forces in the Sinai as part of the cease fire accords which ended the October War of 1973.

ISRAEL / SYRIA

Agreement on the disengagement of Israeli and Syrian armed forces in the Golan as part of the cease fire accords which ended the October War of 1973.

 NORTH KOREA / SOUTH KOREA

Agreement between North and South Korea concluded on 13 December 1991, with a view to building confidence and improving relations between the two countries.

USA / USSR

Accord between the Soviet Union and the United States signed at Moscow on 12 June 1989, and entered into force on 1 January 1990.

Agreement between the Soviet Union and the United States over the prevention of incidents at sea, signed and entered into force on 25 May 1972.

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This information is based upon Steve Tulliu and Thomas Schmalberger, 2003, Coming to Terms with Security: A Lexicon for Arms Control, Disarmament and Confidence-building, Geneva, UNIDIR. Copyright UNIDIR 2003. Reprinted with permission.

The lexicon is available in English, Arabic, French, Korean and Spanish.

Disarmament Research Guides

Lexicon